I. Third generation languages (3GLs)
II. Fourth Generation Languages (4GLS)
III. Fifth generation Languages (5GLs)
IV. Object Oriented Languages (OOPs)
V. Web scripting Languages
i. Large programs can be broken down into smaller sub programs each performing a single task
ii. Use of a few simple control structures in problem solving. These control structures include sequence, selection and iteration
Pascal: was initially developed for teaching structured languages
Fortran: (FORmula TRANslator) this language was developed for mathematicians, scientists and engineers. It involves writing programs with mathematical expressions.
COBOL: (common business oriented language); this language was developed to solve business problems e.g. developing data processing applications such as computer – based inventory control systems.
Basic: (Beginners All- Purpose Symbolic Instructional Code); this language was developed to initially enable students learn programming. This is a simple general purpose language used for developing business and educational applications. This was the first high level language that was available for microcomputer users.
C: This is a programming language mainly used for developing system software such as the operating system. It is one of the most popular and powerful high – level languages in the business world because of its ability to provide the programmer with powerful features of low level languages and at the same time easily understandable as a high level language.
ADA: this is a language named after the first lady programmer. Ada Lovelace. Ada is suitable for developing military, industrial and real-time systems
Fourth generation languages make programming an even easier task than the third generation language because they present the programmer with more programming tools which include: Command buttons, forms, textboxes, Combo boxes etc.
Here, selects graphical objects on the screen called controls then uses them to create designs on a base form. The programmer may also use an application generator works behind the scenes to generate the necessary code, hence the programmer is freed from tedious work of writing the code.
Examples of fourth generation languages
Visual Basic, Delphi Pascal and Visual COBOL
These languages are designed to depict human-like intelligence.
With these languages, the programmer only worries about what problem needs to be solved and what conditions need to be met without worrying about how to implement an algorithm to solve them.
PROLOG, Mercury, Lisp and OCCAM
The concept behind OOPs is to look at a program as having various objects interacting to make up a whole. Each object has specific data values that are unique to it (called state) and a set of the things it can accomplish called (functions or behavior). This process of having data and functions that operate on the data within an object is called encapsulation. Several objects can then be linked to form a complete program.
C++, Java and SmallTalk
The World Wide Web has thrown up a number of new scripting languages specifically designed for web page design. It has also seen an upsurge in popularity of some older languages originally designed for other purposes but which happen to be well-suited for web applications. The following identifies some of the major scripting languages associated with Web page design:
Want to Learn Programming Languages? Click Here
1. Define the term computer program
2. What is programming?
3. State three advantages of high level languages over low level languages
4. List four examples of high level languages and for each, state its most appropriate application area
5. Why is an executable file unique when compared to any other file?
6. Differentiate between a compiler and an interpreter. Why did early computers work well with interpreters?
7. List the various examples of programming languages per generation
8. Write the following in full:
9. Distinguish between source program and object code in programming
10. State one advantage of machinery language over the other languages
11. Define the term encapsulation as used in object oriented programming languages
12. Distinguish between:
a) Low level and high level languages
b) Assembly and machine languages
c) Third generation and forth generation languages
d) Object Oriented Languages and Web Scripting Languages
13. Explore necessary advantages and disadvantages of low level and high level languages stating two examples of each.
Notes and Revisions > Computernotes > ComputerForm3 > 3. ELEMENTARY PROGRAMMING PRINCIPLES >