1.2 Definition of Terms Used in Networking

Definition of Terms Used in Networking


A network is the infrastructure that supports electronic data exchange.Either, it can be defined as a collection of independent entities that are arranged to exchange data or resources

Computer Network

A computer network therefore can be defined as a collection of computers linked together using transmission media for the purpose of communication and resource sharing

Transmission Media

This is any physical or non-physical link between two or more computers and in which a signal can be made to flow from source to destination. These shared resources include:- application programs, printers, fax machines, modems, storage devices etc.

computer networking

Data Communication

Data communication is a process of transmitting data signals from one point to another through the network.

Data Signal

A data signal is a voltage level in the circuit which represents the flow of data. data signal can either be digital or analogue

analogue vs digital


This is a process by which the characteristics of electrical signals are transformed to represent information. Types of modulation include AM, FM, and PAM.i.e converting digital signal to analogue


This is a process of returning a modulated signal to its original form. Modems perform demodulation by taking an analog signal and returning it to its original (digital) form.


This is the process of sending multiple data signals over the same medium


This is the process of separating the multiplexed signals at the receiving end

mux vs demux


This is the maximum amount of data that a transmission medium can carry at lany one time

Baseband Signal

This is a digital signal that is generated and applied tot he transmission medium directly without modulation

Broadband Transmission

An analogue signal is sent over the transmission medium using a particular frequency


This is a decrease in magnitude and energy as a signal progressively moves along a transmission medium


A Physical Layer device which restores, amplifies, re-clocks or otherwise improves a network signal that it receives on one of its ports and transmits the improved signal without buffering or interpreting it.

Modes of data communication


This is communication in only one direction e.g. radio broadcasting

Half Duplex

Refers to communication in both directions but one direction at a time e.g. using a walkie talkie

Full Duplex

This is communication that occurs in both directions simultaneously

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